The peculiarities of tobacco growing technology on the farms of Сhernihiv governorate in 19 th century
The article is dedicated to the key problems of tobacco industry development in Chernihiv governorate in the 19th century. Against a wide background of archival and printed sources and statistical materials, the authors consider the formation and dynamics of production of the industry in the said region. Other issues of the investigated topic are considered as well, especially, the peculiarities of tobacco breeds and the cultivation process. During the XIX century Naddnipryanshchyna embarked on the path of capitalist modernization. Because of the insufficient development of the factory sector, the dominant position was occupied by the sector of agriculture. All of that affected population structure, trade balance sheet figures and export-import oriented opportunity of the region. The research aims at characterizing the development of tobacco industry in Chernihiv governorate during the XIX century on the basis of the analysis of the compiled statistics and scientific literature. The agricultural specialization of the Left-bank Ukraine was conditioned by the development of exchange relationships and formation of agricultural commodities market. In Chernihiv region the range of industrial corps, namely tobacco, flax, hemp, sugar beet, was widened. In particular, the rise of industrial enterprise was accelerated by the development of tobacco growing. In size of the sowing and marketing of tobacco Chernihiv region occupied one of the top positions in the Russian Empire. In the 80s of XIX century the amount of peasants’ tobacco sowing was 68% while the landlords’ only 27 %. The agricultural export amounted to two millions poods. The growing and marketing of tobacco remained to be extremely laborious. Export potential depended on natural and climatic conditions, farm tenure statuses, system of tillage and level ofhusbandry. During the XIX area in Chernigiv governorate the land area that was dedicated for sowing of different breeds of tobacco. It met the demand of both local and export markets. The crop was mostly cultivated by peasant agricultures. That breeds that were cultivated included "chechel-bakun" and "panska makharka". The main centers of industrial tobacco production were Konotop, Nizhyn, Borzna and Sosnitstia districts.
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