Role of Panteleimon Kulish in the Spiritual Development of the Ukrainian Nation
Panteleimon Kulish is a prominent figure in Ukrainian culture and literature. Despite some contradictions of the artist’s cultural and philosophical views in different phases of his life and art, most researchers agree that Panteleimon Kulish is one of those figures who, being multi-faceted, have made a tremendous contribution to the development of Ukrainian culture, literature, art, language and science. P. Kulish participated in the Cyrill-and-Methodius Brotherhood ideological programforming named Genesis of the Ukrainian People. The program was focused on addressing self-identification issues, protecting a separate historical genesis as a community and forming the national consciousness, its spread among Ukrainians. Understanding state and legal ideas comprehensively, P. Kulish offered his own solution to existing complex problems aimed at shaping national consciousness via the historical memory revival. In the decades that followed, in his writings Kulish continued to condemn violence and destruction as means of pursuing a goal. He gives great importance in the social spiritual development to his native word, the Ukrainian language, and praises the beauty of the world, nature, love as a high and noble feeling. Panteleimon Kulish has undergone a marked ideological evolution during his long creative life, driven by social circumstances, political regimes, cultural progress and own assimilation. The artist has made his mark on the world as a talented creative individuality, that enriched his people with literary and fiction (poetic and prose) and nonfiction, scholarly works in the field of history, ethnography, folklore studies, literary studies. P. Kulish is the author of the first Bible translation into Ukrainian. Panteleimon Kulish’s achievements and merits in the development of Ukrainian literature, culture and national ideology are in his
developing of the original regulating conception of the nation spiritual development, marking his perspective direction, which are the components of evolutionary progress, cultural, non-violent way of struggle for social progress and national liberation, statehood, focusing on
eternal humanistic values, universal human morality, Christian brotherhood, universal and national priorities raising over class interests, organic combining of both national ideas and universal ideals.
2. Kulish, P. (1990). Knyha o dilakh narodu ukrainskoho i slavnoho Viiska kozatskoho Zaporozkoho / Kyrylo-Mefodiivske tovarystvo [Book About the Deeds of Ukrainian People and Glorious Zaporozhian Cossack Army/Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius]. 3 vol. Kyiv. Nauk. Dumka [in Ukrainian].
3. Levchyk, N. (2005). Budivnychyi dukhovnoho vidrodzhennia Ukrainy [The builder of spiritual revival of Ukraine]. The Ukrainian language and literature at secondary schools, gymnasiums, lyceums [in Ukrainian].
4. Shevelov, Yu. (1984). Kulishevi lysty i Kulish u lystakh: vybrani lysty Panteleimona Kulisha, ukrainskoiu movoiu pysani [Kulish’s letters and Kulish in letters: Selected Letters of Panteleimon Kulish Written in the Ukrainian Language]. New York, Toronto [in Ukrainian].
5. Shevchenko, T. (1999). Kobzar [Kobzar]. Kyiv: Dnipro [in Ukrainian].
6. Kulish, P. (1984a). Do M. Kostomarova / Kulish Panteleimon. Vybrani lysty Panteleimona Kulisha ukrainskoiu movoiu pysani [To Kostomarov M. / Kulish Panteleimon. Selected Letters of Panteleimon Kulish Written in the Ukrainian language]. New York, Toronto [in Ukrainian].
7. Kulish, P. (1984b). Do O. Konyskoho / Kulish Panteleimon. Vybrani lysty Panteleimona Kulisha ukrainskoiu movoiu pysani [To Konynskyi, O. / Kulish Panteleimon. Selected Letters of Panteleimon Kulish Written in the Ukrainian Language]. New York, Toronto [in Ukrainian].
8. Kulish, P. (2000). Chorna rada [The Black Council]. Kyiv: Biblioteka ukraintsa [in Ukrainian].
9. Kulish, P. (1924). 3 lysta do Parasky Hlibovoi vid 6 kvitnia 1862 r. [3 Letters to Paraska Hlibova on the 6th of April, 1862]. Chervonyi shliakh [in Ukrainian].
10. Kulish, P. (2012). Zazyvnyi lyst do ukrainskoi intelihentsii: Lysty z khutora [Call Letter to Ukrainian Intelligentsia: Letters from the Small Village]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
11. Kulish, P. (1882). Khutorna poeziia [Small Village Poetry]. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
12. Lysty Mykoly Khvylovoho do Mykoly Zerova: Pidhotovka tekstiv, prymitky V. Briukhovetskoho [Letters of Mykola Khvylovyi to Mykola Zerov: Preparation of Texts, Notes by Briukhovetskyi V.]. Radianske literaturoznavstvo [in Ukrainian].
13. Sarbei, V. H. (1995). Panteleimon Kulish u suchasnomu yomu i nynishnomu ukrainskomu natsionalnomu vidrodzhenni [Panteleimon Kulish in the Modern for Him and Current Ukrainian National Renaissance]. Reports of the scientific conference dedicated to the 175th anniversary of the writer. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
14. Nakhlik, Ye. (2000). Ukraina mizh Skhodom i Zakhodom, Aziieiu i Yevropoiu: pohliad Panteleimona Kulisha. Panteleimon Kulish: materialy i doslidzhennia [Ukraine between East and West, Asia and Europe: View of Panteleimon Kulish. Panteleimon Kulish: Materials and Researches]. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
15. Kulish, P. Poslednyi yz Boretskykh. Ystorycheskyi roman yz nedavneho proshloho [The Last of Boretskyi. Historical Novel from the Recent Past]. Institute of CNB manuscript named after Vernadskyi V. I. NAS of Ukraine [in Russian].
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