Semantics of the relative adjectives formed from nouns – the names of non- amorphous substances

  • Olena Shton Candidate of Philologikal Sciences, associate professor of Ukrainian language and methods of its teaching, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiyk National Pedagogical University
Keywords: semantics, multivalued relative adjective, generic noun


The article deals with the urgent problem of modern linguistics – learning the polysemy of the relative adjectives. The objective of the article is finding and describing the potential meaning combination of different types in the semantic structure of the polysemantic relative adjectives.
The article describes the development of the semantics of multivalent relative adjectives formed from nouns – the names of non-amorphous substances. Due to the analysis of such lexemes in the language system and their functioning in modern Ukrainian prose, it has been revealed that there are typical of them semantic structures with three or more lexical-semantic variants, among which there are secondary, nominative-derivative, figurative usual-connotative and occasional-connotative meanings. They derive from actual semes or rarely from the potential semes of generic nouns, mostly on the basis of the hyphenation according to the following five models: 1) from the feature of material to the feature of color; 2) from the feature of material to the feature of sound; 3) from the feature of material to the feature, connected with the motion and the motion-related ability; 4) from the kinesthetic feature to the indication on the feature of hardness, strength and weight; 5) from the feature of material to the attitudinal meaning. It is has been proved in the article that the appearance of the analyzed lexical units of the secondary connotative lexical-semantic variants is caused by the generic noun’s component potential meaning: the more qualitative semes we find in its meaning, the more qualitative lexical and semantic variants of relative adjectives can be developed. The originality of the figurative meanings of the relative adjectives, formed from the concrete nouns, is in the plain internal form, the figurativeness of a noun and the clear setting not on the nomination, but on the characteristic, evaluation or emotional sensitivity.


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