Literature and Culture of Polissya 2020-07-03T00:38:37+03:00 Grygoriy Samoylenko Open Journal Systems <p><strong>This periodical was founded in 1990 by Prof. H. V. Samoylenko</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2618-0022 (Online)&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong><strong>ISSN: 2520-6966 (Print)</strong></p> <p><strong>Since 2013 the periodical has been published in two series: "History Research", "Philology Research"</strong></p> <p>According to Resolution of Higher Attestation Board of 30 June 2015 and order of the Ministry of Education and Science № 747 this collection of research papers is re-registered and listed among the scientific periodicals appropriate&nbsp;<strong>for publishing the results of dissertation theses in history</strong>.</p> <p><span lang="EN-US">According to Resolution of Ukrainian Higher Attestation Board and order</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">o</span><span lang="EN-US">f Ministry&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">of&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Education&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">of&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Ukraine of 21 December 2015 N 1328 this</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">coll</span><span lang="EN-US">ection</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">of research papers is re-registered and listed among the</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">scientific periodicals appropriate&nbsp;<strong>for publishing the results of theses by</strong></span><strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">appli</span><span lang="EN-US">cants</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">for Degrees of Candidate and Doctor&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">of&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Sciences</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">i</span><span lang="EN-US">n</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Phi</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"><strong>lology</strong>.</span>&nbsp;</p> Strengthening Norman tendencies in the early stages of the formation of Soviet historical science 2020-07-03T00:38:37+03:00 S. O. Kyrylenko <p>The article is devoted to a comprehensive analysis of research on the origin of Rus in the context of the development of historical thought in the 1920s - early 1930s. This publication reveals the prerequisites for changing the conceptual foundations of post-revolutionary historical science on the formation of the ancient Rus. Attention is drawn to the first scientific works of historians of the 1920s and 1930s, which proved the Norman origin of the first Russian princes and the bringing of statehood from Scandinavia. The focus is on the historiographical works by O. Shakhmatov, P. Smirnov, V. Brim, which led to the complete<br>restoration of Normanism in its most radical expression. It is noted that this was largely due to the fact that W.Tomsen’s "ultra-Normanism" had never found a worthy opponents. It is emphasized that a convincing impression of the final victory of the Norman concept is formed in the scientific circles, since scientists of the "old school", whose studies were based on long-developed methodological principles, continued to work in academic and educational institutions from the beginning to the end of the 1920s. The author of the article concludes that, at the turn of the 1920s and 1930s Normanism was proclaimed like Marxism-Leninism as an only-true doctrine, which was actively disseminated and promoted both in scientific institutions and in secondary educational establishments through an extensive system of scientific-popular literature and school textbooks.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## General P. H. Wittgenstein in the fighting of the Russian army against Napoleonic France in 1813–1814 2020-07-03T00:38:37+03:00 P. P. Motsiiaka <p>The article is devoted to the study of the role of General P. Kh. Wittgenstein in confrontation with Napoleonic France during the Russian army’s foreign campaign of 1813–1814. The defeat of Napoleon’s army in Russia necessitated the continuation of hostilities outside the Russian Empire in order to prevent the restoration of the "Great Army" and neutralize the allies of France. Emphasized on the regularity of the appointment of P. H. Wittgenstein as a commander-in-chief after the death of M. I. Kutuzov, because he was the most successful military commander in 1812. The battle way of the corps of General P. Kh. Wittgenstein in the battles of the fall of 1813 – the spring of 1814 on the territory of Germany and France is highlighted. The direct course of the key battles of 1813 (near Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, and Leipzig), which was decisive in the confrontation with the Sixth Coalition with Napoleonic France, is examined in detail. The author shares the opinion of some researchers that the presence of Emperor Alexander I at the headquarters of the commander-in-chief hindered his actions and did not allow him to be more independent in the making decisions, which was led to the failure of the Union Army. At the same time, the release of General P. H. Wittgenstein and the appointment of commander-in-chief of the Austrian Schwarzenberg was more a political step than the result of previous failures of the Allied army. According to the author, it was undisputed that the body of the P. H. Wittgenstein played a leading role in the allied army, and in particular the first to broke into Dresden after the "battle of the nations" near Leipzig. The little-known details of the fighting of General P. H. Wittgenstein’s corps in winter-spring 1814 in France were also traced. It was concluded that the circumstances that emerged at the final stage of the Napoleonic wars did not allow P. Kh. Wittgenstein fully reveal his art of warlord.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## To the problem of the relationship Zemsky liberal frontier and the conservative nobility of northern Ukraine(60–80 th ХІХ с.) 2020-07-03T00:38:36+03:00 N. Kotelnitsky subton7@gmil.cjv <p>The publication deals with the problems of the relationship between the zemstvo liberal fronts and the conservative citizenship of northern Ukraine(60–80 th ХІХ с.). The essence of the political conflict is shown and the main plots of this confrontation between the two groups of the aristocratic corporation of the region are illustrated. The author concludes the political antagonism between reactionary and conservative and liberal-democratic nobility in the north of the Left Bank of Ukraine was inevitable and a natural eccentricity of the social life of the region, which fundamentally changed after the fateful transformations of the era of the Great Reforms(1856–1874) in the Russian Empire. The modern day in the history of the country finally separated the two currents of the aristocratic corporation of the state, which formed a stable ground for the emergence of systemic conflicts and confrontation. In the conditions of the provincial realities of northern Ukraine, concrete manifestations of these metamorphoses took place around competence, responsibility, accountability, and interests of social groups; complex of legal and organizational issues of functioning of the institutions of corporate self-government of the nobility of the region; numerous problems of corruption in the area of delimitation of the land fund of the Northern Left Bank; politically motivated and prejudiced acts of supreme authority regarding the non-recognition of the electoral rights of liberal peasants, their deliberate discredit; neglect of the nobility’s interest in the Ukrainian Polissya. On the whole, it must be admitted that the systematic, principled opposition between the two parts of the nobility of Sivershchyna quickly crystallized the formation and creation of the respective parties in the political landscape – a governmental, conservative, fully defending the course of Russian autocracy, and a liberal, representing the philosophy of the democratic circles of the community in the region.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## S. Vitte’s monetary reform and its value 2020-07-03T00:38:36+03:00 I. V. Hulak <p>The current problem remains the study of the development of the tax system and the functioning of mechanisms. Budgetary relations require state regulation, which is achieved through a clear regulation of budgetary activity through the implementation of sound tax policy. It is the tax system that must successfully address the fiscal and distribution functions. By optimizing the distribution of income, which ensures the revenue side of the budget. The taxation system must be designed in such a way as to facilitate the development of productive activities. The article covers the professional activity of S. Yu. Vitte is a prominent financier, politician and diplomat. Difficulties associated with monetary reform and its importance are rising.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The language of ceremonial gesture and costume 2020-07-03T00:38:35+03:00 O. Yu. Zakharova <p>The author explores the semiotics of gesture and ceremonial costme as an important component of the ballroom ceremonial, which has in society, like other ceremonial celebrations (diplomatic methods, military parades, knightly carousel) symbolic value. The article discusses the language of the fan, as a mandatory attribute of the ball costume, about the history of the fan in Western Europe and Russia, as well as about one of the most ancient jewelry, popular in Europe during the XVIII–XIX centuries 4-floral decoration. Specific examples of the connection of individual plots of the history of human society with<br>the history of plants are given. The article studies the role of accessories such as a snuffbox and gloves when shaping a ballroom suit. The language of the costume emphasized the social status, spoke of its artistic taste, which in turn testified not only about the aesthetic, but also the ethical principles of its owner. In contrast to other Ceremonies women were given a special, honorable place at the ball. Not only her reputation, but also the reputation of her relatives ones depended on her behavior at the ball. M. Yu. Lermontov compared the appearance of a woman at the ball with the first ascent of the speaker on the steps of the department. The non-verbal language of communication (the language of gesture, costume, heraldry, emblames, banners, flags) in ceremonial culture serves not only for self-identification and identification of personality, but above all for the indication of society.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Подарки как важная составляющая дипломатического протокола (СССР 20-е – 80-е годы XX столетия) 2020-07-03T00:38:35+03:00 O. Y. Zakharova <p>В статье анализируется роль дипломатических даров в системе международных отношений. Нормы дипломатического протокола, связанные с обменом дарами, были заложены еще в Древнем мире, а развиты в Средние века. Такие предметы, как оружие, меха, ювелирные украшения, будут актуальны в качестве дипломатических подарков вплоть до последней четверти XX века. Советские правители заявляли о горячем желании отречься от наследия прошлого, но в реальности они "увязли", что касается дипломатических даров, даже не в имперском прошлом, а во временах Московского царства, одаривая в первые послевоенные годы иностранных гостей соболиными шубами, пелеринами из чернобурых лисиц и бриллиантовыми перстнями. При этом сами в первые годы после окончания страшной войны не запрещали своим ближайшим родственникам принимать платиновые и золотые часы с бриллиантами, золотые часы и браслеты (речь идет о подарках маршала И. Б. Тито в 1946 году). В конце 40-х – начале 50-х годов начнется новый период в истории российской протокольной практики, связанный с дипломатическими дарами. Своим потенциальным и возможным союзникам СССР с помощью в том числе подарков демонстрировал успехи в области промышленности, экономики, культуры, достигнутые в послевоенный период. При этом идеологические друзья не стремились поражать своих партнеров подобными достижениями. Так, Мао Цзэдун в ответ на подаренный ЗИС- 110 преподнес Сталину (помимо других изделий китайского прикладного искусства) свое стихотворение, напечатанное на рисовом зерне. 1956 год – пик имперской щедрости Советского Союза. Если в 1945 году маршал Тито получил в подарок автомат, в 1946 году – скульптурную группу, то в 1956 президент Тито был одарен самолетом Ил-14. В этот же период нарастают темпы борьбы за друзей между членами НАТО и Варшавским договором. Мы были заинтересованы в усилении наших позиций не только в Европе, но и, в частности, в странах Юго-Восточной Азии, поэтому вслед за президентом Тито Ил-14 получает президент Индонезии Сукарно. Президент ОАР Насер будет одарен не только самолетом, но и орденом Героя Советского Союза. Подобные дипломатические дары – это пренебрежение Советским Союзом существующими нормами дипломатического протокола. Средства передвижения, ювелирные украшения, меховые изделия уже не использовались в Европе на официальном уровне в качестве дипломатических подарков. В то же время в СССР не существовало законодательных актов, ограничивающих принятие подарков официальными лицами. От короля Афганистана К. Е. Ворошилов получает мраморные столы, от премьер-министра Великобритании Н. С. Хрущев принимает уникальный шкаф-бюро в стиле Георга I и комплект квартирной обстановки от немецких товарищей. Известна коллекция дорогих автомобилей Брежнева – "мерседес" из Германии, "ситроен" из Франции, "роллс-ройс" из Англии, "кадиллак" и "линкольн" из США и т. д. Что касается подарочного фонда МИД, то он с начала 60-х годов обеспечивал дарами прежде всего сотрудников дипломатических миссий, отъезжающих навсегда из СССР. От имени Громыко и его супруги им передавались шкатулки, часы, парфюмерные наборы, пластинки с русской музыкой, украшения из янтаря, электрические самовары и т. д. (в каждом случае два-три предмета).<br>Стоимостные ограничения на подарки, получаемые официальными лицами, появились в протокольной практике во второй половине 80-х годов при М. С. Горбачеве. В 2012 году в Брюсселе был принят документ "Коммуникации с еврокомиссией", в одной из глав которого, "Рекомендации по подаркам и гостеприимству", странам Евросоюза не рекомендуется при дипломатическом общении обмениваться подарками. Подарок – непременный атрибут международной вежливости. Выбор подарка и его характер – важный элемент протокольной работы.&nbsp; Демократизация протокольных норм в вопросе обмена официальными подарками в ходе межгосударственного общения проявилась в последние десятилетия XX века и окончательно утвердилась в начале XXI века. Подарок – дань уважения отъезжающему послу за его вклад в развитие международных отношений или одна из форм проявления внимания дипломата к своим коллегам. Пренебрежение нормами протокола может нанести удар по имиджу государства, его авторитету на мировой арене. Протокол – это инструмент, с помощью которого мы выстраиваем дипломатические отношения.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "Passion for sausage": social and political outcomes of food shortage in the USSR in the second half of the 1980s – the beginning of the 1990s. 2020-07-03T00:38:34+03:00 Y. V. Kuzmenko <p>The author of the article examines sausage as the cult food product in the Soviet Union combining methodological approaches of two modern directions in historical science – history of everyday life and food studies. For millions of soviet people sausage was the symbol of wealth. The article looks at the history of development of industrial production of sausage as well as the evolution of the state standards of its production in the USSR. The author mainly focuses on the perestroika period when real ’passion for sausage’ took place due to overwhelming food shortage. It manifested itself in long queues, inadequate service, low<br>product quality, string-pulling, profiteering, etc. and destabilized socio-political life in the USSR. The Ukrainian society back in the 1980s was particularly outraged at the privileged access to scarce goods the Soviet party nomenclature had. The article describes the most striking example of social unrest on grounds of food shortage in the USSR, the so-called ’sausage revolution’ in the city of Chernihiv which led to the change of almost all party leadership in the city. The author concludes that such research gives the opportunity to explore the crisis of the Soviet system in all its manifestations.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The eve and the beginning of Second World War for Croatia (1939–1941) 2020-07-03T00:38:33+03:00 O. P. Motsiiaka <p>For the first time in Ukrainian historiography, the article analyzes the internal and geopolitical situation in Croatian lands before and during the first period of Second World War (1939–1941). The period from the signing of the "Cvetkovic-Macek Agreement" to the formation of the Independent State of Croatia is chronologically covered. Much attention was paid to the plans of Germany (the Third Reich) and Italy for the fate of Yugoslavia, which included these territories. Germany intensified its activities in Yugoslavia through the "fifth column". France and the United Kingdom also sought to drag Yugoslavia to their side in the expanding war. The Croatian nationalists Ustashes supported by these countries launched activities in the Balkans. Besides, the military exercises began in Italy. A broad outreach campaign has been launched. The movement united all Croats who were in Italy. The similar newspapers were published in Rome and Vienna. The circumstances of the formation of Croatia’s Banovina (1939) and the Independent State of Croatia (1941) are analyzed on the background of the political events both internal and external. In the first case, the Croats became part of the new government in Belgrade and the "The Law of Banovina Croatia" was published immediately. All this meant the end of "Yugoslavism" and Unitarianism. On the second, on April 10, 1941, an hour before the arrival of the Wehrmacht troops in Zagreb, Slavko Kvaternik in his speech transmitted to Zagreb radio announced the creation of the Independent State of Croatia, headed by the Ustasha head (leader) Ante Pavelic. Yugoslavia was occupied as one state and disappeared from the map of Europe.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Encyclopedia of Modern Ukraine: regional context 2020-07-03T00:38:33+03:00 M. H. Zhelezniak <p>The article is devoted to the actual issues of the preparation of the Encyclopedia of Modern Ukraine (EMU) and the participation of representatives of different regions in its creation. The potential of interaction of the centre and periphery in the implementation of the nationwide encyclopedic project is revealed on the example of this encyclopedia. In particular, it is traced how the national encyclopedia influences the development of regional encyclopedic book sphere as well as studies of regional encyclopedias, and vice versa, how regional encyclopedists contribute to the formation of the encyclopedic knowledge of the nationwide scale. The tasks for the editors of the EMU are formulated, which are updated in the regional context: a) use of the resource of the EMU at the lessons in secondary schools, in particular in history, law, etc.; b) the attraction of EMU materials to numerous state websites for the purpose of operating reliable<br>information (nowadays information of geographical, historical, jurisprudential nature is often produced by the administrations of districts, regions, cities, towns, villages); c) creation of encyclopedic content in English, which will provide access to the international level.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Regional dimension in studies of encyclopedias 2020-07-03T00:38:32+03:00 O.S Ishchenko <p>The study presents an understanding of encyclopedia science (studies of encyclopedias) as a complex of studies of encyclopedias as well on encyclopedic knowledge. One of the important tasks for encyclopedists is the investigation of encyclopedic books, which are considered as a special literature. The emergence of a new solid encyclopedia is always an event in the cultural life of a society, because it is a publication of high knowledge, exemplary performance, a peculiar document that reflects our reality, the heritage of the people (or its parts). Research of encyclopedic literature is caused by the socio-humanitarian actual issues. Another task of this science is the analysis of the widest spectrum of knowledge and the selection among it of such knowledge, which can be considered as encyclopedic knowledge, that is those that deserve to be presented in the encyclopedic literature. Topical issues of a regional character which are violated in studies of encyclopedias are outlined on the background of the general characteristics of this science. The level of development of regional encyclopedias of Ukraine is traced the study. There is a need to create in each Ukrainian region a basic encyclopedia that would represent the region, would serve its "business card", and would create a holistic objective image of the past and the present of region, its sights, great personalities.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The phenomenon of the sociolocus "Irzhavets" 2020-07-03T00:38:32+03:00 V. Kuzyk <p>The paper deal with original "sociolokus" – Irzhavets village of Ichnya district of Chernigiv province – connected with story about the miracle-working icon of Divine Mother. Taras Shevchenko dedicated poem to this icon. The Irzhavets village is the birth place for prominent persons in national cultural field. The subject "Ukraine as a phenomena geo-genetic area and geo-genetic node" is describe in current paper. It was mentioned expression "geo-genetic area" and "geo-genetic node" concerned with a term "sociolokus" as a value of effective the aforementioned phrases. There are some reasons (geographical location, historical and cultural life) of exist of Irzhavets village of Chernigiv-Siver region (nowadays Ichnya district of Chernigiv province) as unique phenomena of "sociolokus". Analyzing geographic-geological information of Irzhavets’ location, it was disproved previous explain and find real meaning of the name of this ancient settlement. It was review the history of building of Holy Trinity church, supported by philanthropies the Storozhenko Ivan, George and Mychailo, Ivan Galagan. The genealogies of the Storozhenko and Revutskyi family were demonstrated. As well historical view of before revolution Irzhavets in XIX century and "kolgosp village" in XX was presented. The social and cultural values of this village keep the beautiful landscape and its citizens, heirs of Cossack in Chmelnytskyi period. The history of Irzhavets shows increasing interest to this village as original ethno social and cultural area of Left Bank Ukraine region. There is mysterious of Irzhavets in triad: power of miracle-working icon of Divine Mother, Taras Shevchenko words and pictures, activities and life of prominent families of the Storozhenko and Revutskyi.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The urbane studies in Ukraine for instance researching Kovel’s "Little town" in XVI–XVII 2020-07-03T00:38:31+03:00 A. S. Krishan <p>The article deals with the current stage and perspectives of urban studies of Ukrainian cities in early modern time based on the "small city" – Volyn Kovel in the XVI–XVII centuries. Since similar explorations were carried out till the date only for a few, larger, urban centers (Kyiv, Lviv, Lutsk, Kamianets-Podilsky, etc.) in Ukraine, the Kovel phenomenon is precisely that to this day a considerable layer of the source base has been preserved, especially for the second half of the 17th century. As it is known, western Volyn (where Kovel is actually located) was not part of the Cossack Hetmanate, but remained in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the local urban community (with the active assistance of the royal authorities) was able to resuscitate the economic processes in the region. In fact, such Ukrainian cities (on the example of Kovel) have continued to live according to the well-established traditions "before the Cossack" era and it makes a possibility to identify and characterize the features of the development of the urbanization process development in both local (Ukrainian) and international (at the level of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) dimensions by analyzing the sources. The absence of the Cossack "factor" in the Kovel Region as the main driver of socio-political changes led to a long-term "conservation" of urban society model, which remained virtually unchanged after the events of 1648–1654. The particular attention is paid to the characteristic of the available database of the published and unpublished sources for the study of the mentioned urban center due to the fragmentation of research of Ukrainian cities in general. Historical explorations of small cities (on the example<br>of Kovel) can become interesting precedents for a global study of the history of the Ukrainian "magdeburg" traditions. Due to the fact that many different ethnic groups lived in large cities (like Kyiv, Lviv) at different times, no such "mottled" population was observed in the Volyn Kovel, andthus a deeper study of the life of the main urban "national" is possible to analyze major city communities in the Ukrainian territories - Ruthenians (Ukrainians, Belarusians), Poles (including Lithuanians) and Jews – in the Early Modern period.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Orthodox churches of the Pyriatyn district of the second half of the XVIII century 2020-07-03T00:38:31+03:00 V. А. Dmytrenko <p>The article investigates the Orthodox churches that operated on the territory of the Pyriatyn district in the second half of the XVIII century. On the basis of information on the number of churches and clerics and confessional registers, the number of temples in the district is set. It has been found that their number has changed. So in 1758 there were 43, in 1770 there were 65 churches in the territory of the district, in 1785–66, and in 1795–62. Such fluctuations are explained by the transfer of parishes from one district to another. In total, the district in the study period included 87 churches. It was found that 60 % of the temples needed repairs or alterations. The main problems were: leakage of the roof, destruction of the foundation and fire. It was found out that in case of<br>impossibility of repair the new temple was erected. In 70%, it was erected in a new place. This is due to the fact that near the old church, as a rule, there were burial grounds that made construction impossible. On the basis of materials on the repair and construction of churches, it was established that the election of a new place took place with the consent of all parishioners, taking into account the legal issue of ownership of the soils and the degree of remoteness from residential and commercial buildings. It was investigated that the main building material used to build churches was a tree. Mostly it was oak and pine. It was established that on average the construction of a new church in the district lasted for two years.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The nobility of representatives in the clergy corporation of Nizhyn district of Chernigov province at the beginning of the 19th century 2020-07-03T00:38:30+03:00 О. О. Leiberov <p>The article deals with the situation of the representatives of the nobility in the corporate organization of the clergy of Nizhyn district of Chernihiv province. On the basis of archival materials that have not yet been studied by scholars, the author investigates the property, family status of the priestly nobles. The dynamics of the size of this social group, its corporate interests are analyzed. The nobles who carried on the spiritual service thus retained the basic classes of privilege of the noble state, had the right to own serfs. In the main social and household and marital categories, they were little different from the nobility, but their income was much lower. Representatives of this group tried in every possible way to separate themselves from priests of non-noble origin, locking themselves in a separate class-professional group. The researcher came to the conclusion that the existence of priestly nobles in the lands of Left Bank Ukraine was not an exception, but was quite common, which distinguished it from the Russian provinces.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The peculiarities of tobacco growing technology on the farms of Сhernihiv governorate in 19 th century 2020-07-03T00:38:29+03:00 O. V. Krypenko M. P. Prymostka <p>The article is dedicated to the key problems of tobacco industry development in Chernihiv governorate in the 19th century. Against a wide background of archival and printed sources and statistical materials, the authors consider the formation and dynamics of production of the industry in the said region. Other issues of the investigated topic are considered as well, especially, the peculiarities of tobacco breeds and the cultivation process. During the XIX century Naddnipryanshchyna embarked on the path of capitalist modernization. Because of the insufficient development of the factory sector, the dominant position was occupied by the sector of agriculture. All of that affected population structure, trade balance sheet figures and export-import oriented opportunity of the region. The research aims at characterizing the development of tobacco industry in Chernihiv governorate during the XIX century on the basis of the analysis of the compiled statistics and scientific literature. The agricultural specialization of the Left-bank Ukraine was conditioned by the development of exchange relationships and formation of agricultural commodities market. In Chernihiv region the range of industrial corps, namely tobacco, flax, hemp, sugar beet, was widened. In particular, the rise of industrial enterprise was accelerated by the development of tobacco growing. In size of the sowing and marketing of tobacco Chernihiv region occupied one of the top positions in the Russian Empire. In the 80s of XIX century the amount of peasants’ tobacco sowing was 68% while the landlords’ only 27 %. The agricultural export amounted to two millions poods. The growing and marketing of tobacco remained to be extremely laborious. Export potential depended on natural and climatic conditions, farm tenure statuses, system of tillage and level ofhusbandry. During the XIX area in Chernigiv governorate the land area that was dedicated for sowing of different breeds of tobacco. It met the demand of both local and export markets. The crop was mostly cultivated by peasant agricultures. That breeds that were cultivated included "chechel-bakun" and "panska makharka". The main centers of industrial tobacco production were Konotop, Nizhyn, Borzna and Sosnitstia districts.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The formation and development of native cultural and musicological regionalistic study 2020-02-10T10:54:04+02:00 А. І. Lytvynenko <p>The article highlights the historical and cultural foundations of the formation of national cultural and musicological regional studies. Regionalism is singled out as a separate branch of scientific knowledge, focused on the study of the region as a whole geographical, economic, political, socio-cultural system of functioning of territorial societies. Attention is drawn to the notion of "regionalism" as a method that synthesizes the approaches of different sciences to regional research. It is established that the first attempts of regional research went from delineation of geographical boundaries, identification of ethno-territorial features, isolation of anthropological, economic, linguistic, ritual-custom and folklore features – to substantiation of differences of cultural and artistic processes of Ukraine. The first attempts of regional research in Ukraine from the scientific description of the territorial diversity of Ukraine in the seventeenth century to the modern range of issues of regional membership of the territory of Ukraine, which fell into the scientific interests of not only ethnographers but also historians, demographers, linguists, economists, anthropologists, are presented, culturologists. The significance of P. Chubinsky’s researches in the complex comprehensive study of the culture of individual regions of Ukraine, anthropologist Hv. Vovk about the anthropological features of Ukrainians in relation to the geographical spread of their language dialects. There is a wide panorama of the study of regional cultural phenomena in musical folklore on the examples of studies by P. Sokalsky, M. Lysenko, F. Kolessa, K. Kvitka, in choreography – V. Verkhovynets – the founders of the regional approach in the study of artistic phenomena. It has been found out that at the turn of the XX–XXI centuries there is an outburst of scientists’ interest in regional problems. Ukrainian culture is conceived as a holistic phenomenon in the Slavic and world contexts, and a new methodology for the development of contemporary cultural and musicological regional studies is being formed.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mykola Lysenko and stryi region: vectors of contacts 2020-07-03T00:38:29+03:00 O. О. Kuznetsova <p>The article reveals Mykola Lysenko’s influence on the musical, social and cultural life of Stryi and Stryi region. It has been clarified that the artist’s contacts with the region include the personal, the cultural, the artistic and the social vectors. The personal vector is connected with the figures of his contemporaries Ostap Nyzhankivskyi and Filaret Kolessa. They got to know M. Lysenko through correspondence, and communicated with him personally at the Jubilee of the 35th anniversary of his artistic creativity. Their letters had been a real "correspondence school" for raising the professional level of both, composers and folklorists. Basing on the correspondence with M. Lysenko, F. Kolessa wrote several articles on ethnology. Besides, he was the first one among Galician musicologists, who made a scientific review of M. Lysenko’s 35 years long artistic creativity. The cultural and the artistic vectors unfold in the foundation of the branch of the Musical Institute named after M. Lysenko, in aspects of Marta Kravtsiv’s work, publishing of the magazine "Ukrainian music" in Stryi, several theatrical productions staged by Stryi Theater. The public vector consists in setting M. Lysenko’s bust on the pediment of the People’s House, along with other prominent Ukrainians. Stryi gymnasiums, choruses and the soloists of the "Stryi Boyan", teachers and students of the branch of the Musical Institute named after M. Lysenko spiritually and patriotically grew up with his compositions. His works were performed from the theatrical scene and the concert hall of the People’s House. Many musicians, who were born later or temporarily lived in Stryi, also experienced M. Lysenko’s influence. Some of them, such as M. Kravtsiv-Barabash, transferred his instructions overseas. The prospects for the issue are in the further study of the influence of M. Lysenko on artists from Stryi region, including those who became the Ukrainians abroad.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The violin in culture of Prykarpattya on the pages of Ivano-Frankivsk journal "galytchyna" 2020-07-03T00:38:28+03:00 T. V. Jurchylo <p>According to the Ivano-Frankivsk journal “Galychyna” considering cultural and art life of town event and area information has been arranger in this paper first time. The articles of the journal founded in 1991 contain information about violin’s musical tradition of the past and present. It popularizes activities of musician concerning they art in Prykartapattya, experiences and learning of each one in violin performance. Attention have been paid to personalities performers of different ages, for example, Bohdan Ivasyk, winner of many art competitions and Roman Kumlyk a one man band, and Mykhailo Tymofiiv, Roman Shmygelskyi and Fedir Kravchuk who performed in Argentine and Spain. Analyze have been given to the content of the articles, that could help to hear song of violin as perfect musical instrument. The Ira Melnyk’s performance was mentioned with orchestra “Harmonia Noble” with its tour to 32 states in the world in Western Europe, Asia, Africa. The journal “Galychyna” contains information about Sergii Cherniak’s orchestra, ensemble "Quattro corde" with its conductor Alzhela Prychodko. Explored a lot of festival as “Junior virtuoso”, “Carpathian area”, and festival dedicate Kwitka Tsisyk, who likes violin as head of musical instruments, ethno festival “Kosmach – the room of the sun”. Lina Kostenko and Ivan<br>Malkovich also mentioned in this journal.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The figure of Panteleimon Kulish in creative heritage of Petro Stebnytskyi 2020-07-03T00:38:28+03:00 I. О. Demuz <p>In the article is analyzed the legacy of the Ukrainian publisher and publicist Petro Stebnytskyi, dedicated to the figure and creativity of Panteleimon Kulish, in particular, the publication "Cultural and Public Work of P. O. Kulish" and the manuscript entitled "Panteleimon Kulish". It is proved that P. Stebnytskyi also added his page into the so-called "Kulish studies". P. Stebnytskyi’s assessment of public figures / writers was, first and foremost, a measure of the benefit that the person has brought to the Ukrainian national matter, the formation of civic consciousness and the upholding of national interests of Ukrainians. It is emphasized that in the processes of national and political self-identification for the representatives of the Ukrainian elite at the border of 19–20 centuries, including Petro Stebnytskyi, Panteleimon Kulish became a significant figure. It was stated that the publicist equated P. Kulish with M. Drahomanov and I. Franko in importance to Ukrainian history, and believed that the writer had started literary-critical studies of Ukrainian national literature; P. Stebnytskyi tried to understand the "Kulish phenomenon", the motives and reasons for his sharp anti-Ukrainian position. At the same time, he with deliberate criticism approached the evaluation of P. Kulish’s journalistic writings. Moreoven, attention was drawn to the unpublished (and possibly even lost) manuscript of P. Stebnytskyi’s work "P. O. Kulish in letters from his wife".</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oleksandra Bilozerska’s "Marko" as one of the first mentions of a doll-motanka in Ukrainian literature 2020-07-03T00:38:27+03:00 A. V. Stakhurska-Kozoriz <p>The article tells about Olexandra Bilozerska’s doll-motanka. Doll-motanka is considered a jotting of Ukrainian history and culture. We need to emphasize its uniqueness to confirm this status. Unfortunately, we don’t have enough ancient dolls. The author investigated two dolls that Mrs. Lesia had. One is a baby doll-motanka and the other is a doll-motanka with embroidered elements and embroidery. These dolls are stored in Panteleimon Kulish Regional Historical Memorial Museum "Gannina Pustyn". She dreamt of becoming a mother from an early childhood. Olexandra made a doll and a crade when she was little. She cared for the doll as a real baby. The author claims that the girl learns to take care for her baby by playing dolls. Olexandra Mykhailivna called her doll Mark. The author describes that earlier dolls were made by hands. The girls are playing with plastic dolls now, but they have not forgotten the tradition of making dolls with fabric. Meanwhile, though the doll has changed, the main purrpose of the game remains. We suppose that Panteleimon Olexsandrovych Kulish mentioned in this letter exactly about Marko’s doll. Kulish called the doll "lelia". The author assumes that this word was introduced by Kulish. The term may have come from the goddess Lessia. This doll was very important for Olexandra. This is the first mention of a doll-motanka in literature. It is described in details in the article. The author also mentions the case when Taras Shevchenko made a squirrel with a handkerchief at Kulish wedding, with lasted for a whole week. The work also deals with the relationships between spouses. In the literature Olexandra Mykhailivna Bilozerska-Kulish<br>was included as Hanna Barvinok. The more Hanna Barvinok took the pen, the brighter the creative achievements became. The couple didn’t have children. As a result, the author concludes that the works of literature have become their children.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From the history of the library of Nizhyn Mykola Gogol State University: the years of great turning point (1920–1930) 2020-07-03T00:38:27+03:00 H. S. Osipova L. P. Kosovskykh <p>A difficult and controversial period in the development of the library at the Nizhyn School of Higher Learning in the soviet socio-political realities in the 20–30–ies of the XX century is analyzed. Crucial and dynamic changes in the organizational system, methodological assumptions and approaches in defining priorities in the development of the higher educational establishment took place at that time. The activities of the library and its place in the history of the Nizhyn School of Higher Learning and Library Science in Ukraine which can be characterized as centralization are described. The experience of the library in forming the depository and its use in the educational process, some peculiarities in the functioning of the depository and providing service to customers are disclosed. The contribution into the development of the depository made by M. N. Berezhkov, L. S. Kulzhynska, V. K. Pukhtynskyi is studied.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Modern ukrainian historiography on the activities of the league of nations as an international organization of the Peace and unation 2020-07-03T00:38:26+03:00 A. G. Brovko <p>The article deals with the current state of studying of the activities of the League of Nations in Ukrainian historiography nowadays. It is worthwhile saying that there is a considerable interest to the international organization of peace and unation by Ukrainian scientists. This problem has attracted the attention of a wide range of researchers, which has contributed to the coverage of both historical and legal aspects. Modern Ukrainian historical science, relying on the new sources and devoiding of the ideological influence, has begun to raise new questions about the international political situation and the activities of international organizations. From a different side, scientists began to consider the activities of the League of Nations, which in Soviet times was reduced only to negative features, focusing on the and drawback andmistakes of the organization. This interpretation of events was carried out in accordance with the interests of the Soviet state. Due to the exclusion of the USSR from the League of Nations, in connection with the war in Finland, the party nomenclature was interested in presenting this international organization in a negative light. Although the League of Nations, as an international organization for the peace and security, has failed to fulfill its obligations fully, modern researchers, by providing an objective assessment of the League’s activities, highlight not only its shortcomings but also highlight the positive aspects of the organization’s work. and its contribution to the development of international unation. By the way, according to scientists, the League of Nations, as a collective security body, was of great historical importance because it gave humanity a positive experience of resolving conflicts at the international level peacefully.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anthropology of John Maximovich and Georgi Konyssky, in the сontext of the holy fathers look at life 2020-07-03T00:38:25+03:00 S. О. Chutschenko <p>Analyze has been given to evolution of Ukrainian Orthodox Anthropology as original for theology development. The terms “heart” or “philosophy of heart” was<br>considered in the context of anthropology as a base Orthodox Anthropology in Ukrainian tradition. The reasons differences between Ukrainian Orthodox and Global Orthodox were mentioned, because integration Ukrainian area to the state. Also it was mentioned the contribution of Ukrainian priest to the world heritage. Particularly, attentions has been given to Ioann Tobolskyi, who was born in Nizhyn, and George Konyskyi, prominent person in religious and cultural life in Ukraine&nbsp;and Belarus in XVIII centuries. Their works became the source for study Ukrainian theology nowadays.</p> 2020-02-05T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##