The eve and the beginning of Second World War for Croatia (1939–1941)

  • O. P. Motsiiaka Specialist of the Center for Humanitarian Cooperation with the Diaspora at NSU them. M. Gogol
Keywords: Second World War, Crochet Croatia, Cvetkovic-Macek Agreement


For the first time in Ukrainian historiography, the article analyzes the internal and geopolitical situation in Croatian lands before and during the first period of Second World War (1939–1941). The period from the signing of the "Cvetkovic-Macek Agreement" to the formation of the Independent State of Croatia is chronologically covered. Much attention was paid to the plans of Germany (the Third Reich) and Italy for the fate of Yugoslavia, which included these territories. Germany intensified its activities in Yugoslavia through the "fifth column". France and the United Kingdom also sought to drag Yugoslavia to their side in the expanding war. The Croatian nationalists Ustashes supported by these countries launched activities in the Balkans. Besides, the military exercises began in Italy. A broad outreach campaign has been launched. The movement united all Croats who were in Italy. The similar newspapers were published in Rome and Vienna. The circumstances of the formation of Croatia’s Banovina (1939) and the Independent State of Croatia (1941) are analyzed on the background of the political events both internal and external. In the first case, the Croats became part of the new government in Belgrade and the "The Law of Banovina Croatia" was published immediately. All this meant the end of "Yugoslavism" and Unitarianism. On the second, on April 10, 1941, an hour before the arrival of the Wehrmacht troops in Zagreb, Slavko Kvaternik in his speech transmitted to Zagreb radio announced the creation of the Independent State of Croatia, headed by the Ustasha head (leader) Ante Pavelic. Yugoslavia was occupied as one state and disappeared from the map of Europe.


1. Bjeljakov, S. S. [2009]. Ustashi : mezhdu fashizmom i etnicheskim natsionalizmom [The Ustashes: between fascism and ethnic nationalism]. Jekaterinburg: Izdateljstvo NOUVPO Gumanitarnii universitet. [In Russian]. Bukhanov, V. A. "Imperskaja krepostj Belgrad". Germanskie plany kolonizacii Yugo-Vostochnoj Evropy (1939–1941) ["The Imperial Fortress of Belgrade". German plans for the colonization of Southeast Europe (1939–1941)]. Sovetskoje slavjanovedenje – The Soviet Slavic studies. (1) 1989. 20–31. [In Russian].
2. Volkov, V. K. Sovjetski-jugoslavskie otnoshenija v nachaljnii period Vtoroj mirovoj vojni v kontekste mirovih sobitij (1939–1941 gg.) [Soviet-Yugoslav relations in the initial period of the Second World War in the context of the world events (1939–1941)]. Sovetskoje slavjanovedenje – The Soviet Slavic studies. (6) 1990. 3–17. [In Russian].
3. [1963]. Istorija Yugoslavii. / Pod red. L. B. Valjeeva, G. M. Slavina, I. I. Udaltsova [The history of Yugoslavia]. Vol. 2. Moscow: Izdateljstvo Akademii nauk SSSR. [In Russian].
4. Matveeva G. F., Nenashevoj Z. S., (Eds) (2001). Istorija yuzhnikh i zapadnikh slavjan [The history of the southern and western Slavs]. Vol. 2. Novejshee vremja [Vol. 2. Newest times]. / Pod red. 2-e izd. Moscow: Izd-vo MGU.
5. Nikiforov, K. V. (2012). Serbija na Balkanah. XX vek [Serbia in the Balkans. XX century]. Moscow : "Indrik". [In Russian].
6. Pluzhnikov, D. A. Neizbezhnost "Apreljskoj katastrofi" dlja Yugoslavii [The inevitability of the "April Disaster" for Yugoslavia]. Vjestnik MGOU. Serija "Istorija i politicheskije nauki" – Bulletin of MGOU. Series "History and Political Science". (2) 2013. 16–20. [In Russian].
7. Riveli, M. A. (2011). Arkhijepiskop genocida. Monsenjor Stepinac, Vatikan i ustashskaja diktatura v Khorvatii 1941–1945 [The archbishop of genocide. Monsignor Stepinac, Vatican and Ustas dictatorship in Croatia in 1941–1945]. Moscow. [In Russian].
8. Rotshild, Dzh. (2001). Shidno-Tsentralna Jevropa mizh dvoma svitovimy vijnamy [East Central Europe between the two world wars]. Kyiv: Megatajp. [in Ukrainian]
9. Uest, R. (1998). Iosip Broz Tito: vlast sily [Josip Broz Tito: The Power of Strength]. Smolensk: Rusich. [In Russian]. [In Russian].
10. Freidzon, V. I. (2001). Istorija Khorvatii. Kratkii ocherk s drevneishih vremen do obrazovanija respubliki (1991 g.) [The history of Croatia. A brief outline from ancient times to the formation of the republic (1991)]. Sank-Peterburg: Aleteija. [In Russian].
11. Freidzon, V. I. (1997) Osnovnije tendencii mezhvojennoj istoriografii yugoslavizma, 1918–1941 gody [The main trends of the interwar historiography of
Yugoslavism, 1918–1941]. Slavjanovedenje – Slavic studies. (6) 1997. 58–66. [In Russian].
12. Horvat, R. [1992]. Hrvatska na mučilištu [Croatia in torture]. Zagreb: Školska knjiga.

Abstract views: 47
How to Cite
Motsiiaka, O. P. “The Eve and the Beginning of Second World War for Croatia (1939–1941)”. Literature and Culture of Polissya, Vol. 97, no. 12i, Feb. 2020, pp. 99-08, doi:10.31654/2520-6966-2019-12i-97-99-108.