Metropolitan Iosif Veliyamin Rutsky and his role in the historical development of Belarus
This article presents basic biographical information about Metropolitan Joseph Rutskoi. Characterized by his contribution to the development of the tradition of Eastern monasticism in the Belarusian lands. In 1617, Rutsky initiated the monastic reform, as a result of which the Basilian Order was created. Metropolitan is the author of his charter. It is noted that in the future the Basilian Order became a stronghold of the Uniate Church. The article discusses the role of Rutsky in the development of education in the Belarusian lands. Metropolitan Rutsky initiated the creation of a "Russian" educational system within the framework of the Uniate Church. He founded Uniate schools in a number of settlements in Belarus. Schools were supposed to be monopolized by the Basilians. In 1615 uniate schools were equalized with Jesuit schools. Rutsky also sent monks to study in Europe. The role of Metropolitan Rutsky in raising the status of the Uniate Church in the state and society is shown. He has achieved the inclusion of representatives of the highest Uniate clergy in the Rada ON. Rutsky defended the position of the Uniate Church in the Seimas, opposed the revival of the alternative Orthodox hierarchy, which opposed the union with Rome, and its legitimization. The author of the article notes that the personnel policy of the Metropolitan was quite successful. Key church positions were occupied by talented figures (R. Korsak and others). As a result of church reforms, only monks could become bishops. This strengthened the Uniate Church from within.
Rutsky came up with the initiative of beatification of the Polotsk archbishop Josaphat Kuntsevich, who was killed in Vitebsk in 1623. Later, the cult of I.Kuntsevich was widely spread in the Belarusian lands. The position of Metropolitan Rutsky in the relations between the Uniates and the Orthodox is shown. Rutsky called for dialogue, a peaceful resolution of controversial issues. He spoke with the project of creating a patriarchy that would unite the Uniates and the Orthodox. The article deals with the missionary activity of Rutsky. It is noted that when he was young, he was in Moscow, where he discussed plans for a union of the Moscow Church with Rome. Rutsky wanted to go to Persia as a missionary, but the trip did not take place. As a metropolitan, he sent missionaries to the Balkans. The author of the article disputes the thesis that Rutsky wanted to turn the Orthodox inhabitants of Belarus into Catholics of the Latin rite. In conclusion, it is noted that the activities of Metropolitan Joseph Rutsky contributed to strengthening the position of the Uniate Church on Belarusian lands.
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